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    Aurora family of protein kinases have emerged as crucial factors of, not only mitosis and cytokinesis, but also human carcinogenesis. Among these family members is Aurora-A that is frequently overexpressed in varieties of human cancer. Both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that Aurora-A induces tumorigenesis through genome instability.

    Male moths respond to conspecific female-released pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and specificity, due to highly specialized chemosensory neurons in their antennae. In Antheraea silkmoths, three types of sensory neurons have been described, each responsive to one of three pheromone components. Since also three different pheromone binding

    Thiolase I and II coexist as part of the glyoxysomal -oxidation system in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cotyledons, the only system shown to have both forms. The importance of thiolases can be underscored not only by their ubiquity, but also by their involvement in a wide variety of processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Here we

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences alignment and proteomic difference of Anoectochilus interspecies have been studied by means of ITS molecular identification and surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrography. Results showed that variety certification on Anoectochilus by ITS sequences can not determine

    We present for the first time a comparative analysis of blood and organ system data from trials with rats fed three main commercialized genetically modified (GM) maize (NK 603, MON 810, MON 863), which are present in food and feed in the world. NK 603 has been modified to be tolerant to the broad spectrum herbicide Roundup and thus contains

    The majority of the leukocytes cross the endothelial lining of the vessels through cell-cell junctions. The junctional protein Vascular Endothelial (VE)-cadherin is transiently re-distributed from sites of cell-cell contacts during passage of leukocytes. VE-cadherin is part of a protein complex comprising p120-catenin and beta-catenin as

    Ldb1 is an essential co-regulator of transcription in embryonic development. It acts in conjunction with nuclear LIM-homeodomain and LIM-only proteins to control key events of organogenesis as precursor cells enter lineage specification. Here we ask whether Ldb1 exerts control over stem cell activation and differentiation throughout the life of

    Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken

    Azithromycin (AZM), a 15-member macrolide antibiotic, possesses anti-inflammatory activity. Macrophages are important in innate and acquired immunity, and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-12, which are composed of subunit p40 and p35. The key function of IL-12 is the induction and maintenance of T-helper-1 responses,

    Karyotypes and chromosomal data are presented for eight bat species representing two families (Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) from Hainan Island, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus lepidus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. pusillus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. affinis (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. sinicus (2n = 36, FN = 60), Myotis horsfieldi (2n = 44,

    Discogenic lower back pain (DLBP) is the most common type of chronic lower back pain (LBP), accounting for 39% of cases, compared to 30% of cases due to disc herniation, and even lower prevalence rates for other causes, such as zygapophysial joint pain. Only a small proportion (approximately 20%) of LBP cases can be attributed with reasonable

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides have been pursued as new therapeutic agents for the treatment of atherosclerosis, yet their precise mechanism responsible for atheroprotection remains unclear. Like apoA-I itself, most of these peptides are capable of stimulating cholesterol efflux from macrophages or foam cells, and some of them

    In mammals, adipose tissue stores energy in the form of fat. The ability to regulate fat storage is essential for the growth, development and reproduction of most animals, thus any abnormalities caused by excess fat accumulation can result in pathological conditions which are linked to several interrelated diseases, such as cardiovascular

    One of the major products of lipid peroxidation is trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). HNE forms highly mutagenic and genotoxic adducts to all DNA bases. Using M13 phage lacZ system, we studied the mutagenesis and repair of HNE treated phage DNA in E. coli wild-type or uvrA, recA, and mutL mutants. These studies revealed that: (i) nucleotide excision

    A recent report postulated that the mast cell population is a significant reservoir for persistent HIV infection. Our study attempted to validate this hypothesis by quantitatively comparing the distribution of mast cells and cells expressing the HIV protein p24 in HIV infected patients. Consecutive sections of paraffin-embedded human tissues from

    Cytochrome b (cyt b) gene complete sequences (1143bp) of Takydromus sylvaticus were sequenced. In order to clarify the phylogenetic position of the Takydromus sylvaticus, we investigated the phylogeny of 15 Takydromus spp. distributed in East-Asia by Maximum Parsimony (MP), Bayesian Inference (BI), and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods using DNA

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most

    Brucella melitensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen. An operon composed of BMEI0066, which encodes a two-component response regulator CenR, and BMEI0067, which encodes a cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit, has been predicted to exist in many bacterial species. However, little is known about the function of this operon. In

    The characterization of candidate loci is a critical step in obtaining insight into adaptation and acclimation of organisms. In this study of two non-model tropical (to sub-tropical) congeneric perciformes (Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus) we characterized both coding and non-coding regions of lactate dehydrogenase-B (ldh-b), a locus which

    Background The present study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of garlic extract and silymarin on N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Methods and Results Animals were pretreated with garlic, silymarin or both for one week prior to the

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV), the causative agent of avian flu or bird flu, cause widespread morbidity and mortality in poultry. The symptoms of the disease range from mild flu like symptoms to death. These viruses possess two important surface glycoproteins, namely hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) against which neutralizing antibodies

    Quantitative or complex traits are determined by the combined effects of many loci, and are affected by genetic networks or molecular pathways. In the present study, we genotyped a total of 138 mutations, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from 71 functional genes on a Wagyu x Limousin reference population. Two hundred forty six F2

    Due to overlapping morphology, malignant chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and benign renal oncocytomas (RO) may pose a diagnostic problem. In the present study, we have applied different algorithms to evaluate the data sets obtained by hybridisation of pooled and also individual samples of renal cell tumours (RCT) onto two different gene

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable and abundant resource with great potential for bioconversion to value-added bioproducts. However, the biorefining process remains economically unfeasible due to a lack of biocatalysts that can overcome costly hurdles such as cooling from high temperature, pumping of oxygen/stirring, and, neutralization from

    Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a key role in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process by converting cholesterol to cholesteryl ester to form mature HDL particles, which in turn deliver cholesterol back to the liver for excretion and catabolism. HDL levels in human plasma are negatively correlated with cardiovascular risk

    Cholesterol is an essential substance involved in many functions, such as maintaining cell membranes, manufacturing vitamin D on surface of the skin, producing hormones, and possibly helping cell connections in the brain. When cholesterol levels rise in the blood, they can, however, have dangerous consequences. In particular, cholesterol has

    Cisplatin, doxorubicin and fluorouracil (5-FU), drugs belonging to different chemical classes, have been extensively used for chemotherapy of various cancers. Despite extensive investigations into their hepatotoxicity, there is very limited information on their effects on the structure and ultra-structure of liver cells in vivo. Here, we

    The purpose was to develop a metastatic score specific to the hepatic and peritoneal site in colorectal cancer patients from clinical, pathohistological and molecular markers potentially reflecting oncogenic activation (OA) or epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), where OA may reflect an activation and EMT the functional loss of certain genes.

    In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, the most well-known wild silkworm used for silk production and insect food. Total RNA was extracted from a single fresh female pupa at the diapause stage. The titer of the library was 5 105 cfu/ml and the proportion of

    We have recently demonstrated that Aurora-A kinase is a potential oncogene to develop mammary gland tumors in mice, when expressed under MMTV promoter. These tumors contain phosphorylated forms of Akt and mTOR, suggesting that Akt-mTOR pathway is involved in transformed phenotype induced by Aurora-A. In the present studies, we discovered that

    Chronic health effects are increasing in the world such as cancers, hormonal, reproductive, nervous, or immune diseases, even in young people. During regulatory toxicological subchronic tests to prevent these on mammalian health, prior commercialization of chemicals, including pesticides and drugs, or GMOs, some statistically significant findings

    p38 MAP kinase (MAPK) is activated in response to environmental stress, cytokines and DNA damage, and mediates death, cell differentiation and cell cycle checkpoints. The intracellular localization of p38 MAPK upon activation remains unclear, and may depend on the stimulus. We show here that activation of p38 MAPK by stimuli that induce DNA double

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) heterogeneity accounts for the failure of effective vaccine development and the lack of successful anti-viral therapy in some patients. Little is known about the immune response to HCV peptides and the region or race specific genotypes in China. The objective of this study was to characterize HCV antibody immune response to

    Conformational changes in proteins are fundamental to all biological functions. In protein science, the concept of protein flexibility is widely used to describe protein dynamics and thermodynamic properties that control protein conformational changes. In this study, we show that urea, which has strong sedative potency, can be administered to fish

    Vertebrate Hox genes regulate many aspects of embryonic body plan development and patterning. In particular, Hox genes have been shown to regulate regional patterning of the axial and appendicular skeleton and of the central nervous system. We have identified patterning defects resulting from the targeted mutation of Hoxc10, a member of the Hox10

    Chronic back pain is a global health problem affecting millions of people worldwide and carries significant economic and social morbidities. Intervertebral disc damage and degeneration is a major cause of back pain, characterised by histological and biochemical changes that have been well documented in animal models. Recently there has been

    Spirulina platensis (SP) is a filamentous cyanobacterium microalgae with potent dietary phyto-antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous properties. The present study aimed to investigate the chemopreventive effect of SP against rat liver toxicity and carcinogenesis induced by dibutyl nitrosamine (DBN) precursors, and further characterized

    The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is involved in many cellular processes including cell cycle progression, DNA damage response, transcriptional regulation, viral infection, and apoptosis. These cellular activities often rely on the localization of PML to unique subnuclear structures known as PML nuclear bodies (NBs). More than 50 cellular

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined as being composed of 15,327 base pairs (bp), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs is the same as that found in the other sequenced lepidopteran. The AT

    Recent studies implicate that apelin and its receptor APJ may have important role for the modulation of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to further characterise the regulation of apelin/APJ system in bovine ovary. Experiment 1: corpora lutea (CL) were assigned to the following stages: days 1-2, 3-4, 5-7, 8-12, 13-16, 18 (after

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether -galactosylceramide (-GalCer), a synthetic glycolipid agonist of natural killer T (NKT) cells, can ameliorate exercise-induced immune imbalance. Methods: Eight-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained with a progressively increasing load for 9 weeks. At 36 h and at 7 d

    The congenital splay leg syndrome in piglets is characterized by a temporarily impaired functionality of the hind leg muscles immediately after birth. Etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms for the disease are still not well understood. We compared genome wide gene expression of three hind leg muscles (M. adductores, M. gracilis and M. sartorius)

    In many moths, mate-finding communication is mediated by the female sex pheromones. Since differentiation of sex pheromones is often associated with speciation, it is intriguing to know how the changes in female sex pheromone have been tracked by the pheromone recognition system of the males. A male-specific odorant receptor was found to have been

    We have found natural products exhibiting lipolysis-promoting activity in subcutaneous adipocytes, which are less sensitive to hormones than visceral adipocytes. The activities and a action mechanisms of a novel plant extract of Cirsium oligophyllum (CE) were investigated in isolated adipocytes from rat subcutaneous fat, and its fat-reducing

    We investigated the potential usefulness of vesnarinone, a novel cytokine inhibitor, for the treatment of lung fibrosis using a murine model of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Mice were fed a control diet (n=42), or a diet containing low (n=42) or high (n=42) dose of vesnarinone. Dietary intake of vesnarinone minimized the BLM toxicity

    During the last three decades, both genome mapping and sequencing methods have advanced significantly to provide a foundation for scientists to understand genome structures and functions in many species. Generally speaking, genome mapping relies on genome sequencing to provide basic materials, such as DNA probes and markers for their

    Persistent tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na (Nav1.9/SCN11A) currents are not normally recorded in vagal afferent neurons (VANs) with 50 mM of extracellular Na although the functional expression of this current was observed in the presence of PGE2 or forskolin. However, it is uncertain whether this current can be seen under physiological

    An isotope dilution method using sodium (Na) acetate was conducted to determine the effect of feeding hop (Humulus lupulus L.) residues on plasma acetate metabolism in six adult crossbred sheep. The sheep were fed 63 g/kg BW0.75/d of either mixed hay (MH-diet) of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris

    Our recent studies revealed that focal basal cell layer disruption (FBCLD) induced auto-immunoreactions represented a contributing factor for human prostate tumor progression and invasion. As the basement membrane surrounds and attaches to the basal cell layer, our current study assessed whether FBCLD would impact the physical integrity of the

    Objective: Mechanotransduction is the mechanism that due to reacting chondrocytes on biomechanical loading of body mass. Higher biomechanical loading lead to increased degeneration of chondrocytes, whereas moderate loading is protecting. This suggests that body fat regulates bone metabolism first by means of hormonal factors and second that the

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2), a food color fixative and preservative, contributes to carcinogenesis. We investigated the protective role of garlic oil against NaNO2-induced abnormalities in metabolic biochemical parameters and oxidative status in male albino rats. NaNO2 treatment for a period of three months induced a significant increase in serum

    Background: The developmental origin theory of coronary heart disease proposes that undernutrition in utero permanently changes body functions and metabolism leading to an increased risk of coronary artery diseases (CAD) in adult life. Some studies support this theory but others suggest that birth weight (BW) is not a major risk factor for

    The ancestor of recent vertebrate teeth was a tooth-like structure on the outer body surface of jawless fishes. Over the course of 500,000,000 years of evolution, many of those structures migrated into the mouth cavity. In addition, the total number of teeth per dentition generally decreased and teeth morphological complexity increased. Teeth form

    Organic acids are considered as potential substrates for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkaonates. The acids may also be the metabolic inhibitors at moderate concentration levels. In this study, Ralstonia eutropha was used to elucidate the protein regulations when the bacterial cells pre-cultivated on glucose were exposed to three representative

    Small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO) work in a similar way as ubiquitin to alter the biological properties of a target protein by conjugation. A shrimp SUMO cDNA named LvSUMO-1 was identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. LvSUMO-1 cDNA contains a coding sequence of 282 nucleotides with untranslated regions of 37 bp at 5'-end and 347 bp at 3'-end,

    Pacemaker activity of the sinoatrial node has been studied extensively in various animal species, but is virtually unexplored in man. As such, it is unknown whether the fast sodium current (INa) plays a role in the pacemaker activity of the human sinoatrial node. Recently, we had the unique opportunity to perform patch-clamp experiments on single

    Bone morphogenetic protein-13 (BMP-13) plays an important role in skeletal development. In the light of a recent report that mutations in the BMP-13 gene are associated with spine vertebral fusion in Klippel-Feil syndrome, we hypothesized that BMP-13 signaling is crucial for regulating embryonic endochondral ossification. In this study, we found

    Particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening after total joint replacement. While the osteolytic cascade initiated by cytokine release from macrophages has been studied extensively, the involvement of T-lymphocytes in this context is controversial and has been addressed by only a few authors. In a former study we detected that

    To develop transgenic lines for conditional expression of desired genes in rats, we generated several lines of the transgenic rats carrying the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) gene. Using a vigorous, ubiquitous promoter to drive the tTA transgene, we obtained widespread expression of tTA in various tissues. Expression of tTA was

    Biology is now entering the new era of systems biology and exerting a growing influence on the future development of various disciplines within life sciences. In early classical and molecular periods of Biology, the theoretical frames of classical and molecular quantitative genetics have been systematically established, respectively. With the new

    Chitosan and its derivative water soluble Chitosan oligosaccharide are used in a variety of applications in pharmaceutical preparations. In this study, 2 wild (ATCC 15729 and PAO1) and 2 mutant strains (PT121 and PT149) of P. aeruginosa are investigated for drug-drug interactions in vitro. 10 antimicrobial agents (antibiotics) are combined with

    SIRT1 has been considered as a tumor promoter because of its increased expression in some types of cancers and its role in inactivating proteins that are involved in tumor suppression and DNA damage repair. However, recent studies demonstrated that SIRT1 levels are reduced in some other types of cancers, and that SIRT1 deficiency results in

    The successful use of tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN) as a source of effector cells for cancer immunotherapy depends largely on the immunogenicity of the tumor drained by the lymph nodes as well as the methods for secondary in vitro T cell activation and expansion. We transferred the bacterial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) gene

    Urinary kidney injury molecule (KIM-1) is a sensitive quantitative biomarker for early detection of kidney tubular injury. The objective of the present work was to analytically validate this urinary renal injury biomarker. Duo-set reagents from RD were used to develop the ELISA and validate the assay's linearity, intra-run precision,

    Neurotrophin expression in early stages of development is crucial for brain assembly and function. In particular, postnatal expression of neurotrophins has not been well documented in the neostriatum and in general neurotrophins or their receptor mRNA's are normally reported, but not protein expression. In the present study, immunocytochemical

    Micro- and short-interfering RNAs represent small RNA family that are recognized as critical regulatory species across the eukaryotes. Recent high-throughput sequencing have revealed two more hidden players of the cellular small RNA pool. Reported in mammals and Caenorhabditis elegans respectively, these new small RNAs are named piwi-interacting

    Our recent studies revealed that focal alterations in breast myoepithelial cell layers significantly impact the biological presentation of associated epithelial cells. As pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) has a significantly more aggressive clinical course and mortality rate than other forms of breast malignancies, our current study

    Objective: Asthma is caused by a complex interaction between multiple genes and environmental factors. Herein we aimed to investigate whether signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT2), toll-like receptors 4 (TLRs4) and CD40-related polymorphisms are associated with asthma susceptibility. Design: Children were divided: (1) asthma

    Planarian flatworms have an impressive regenerative power. Although their embryonic development is still poorly studied and is highly derived it still displays some simple characteristics. We have identified SpolvlgA, a Schmidtea polychroa homolog of the DDX3/PL10 DEAD-box RNA helicase DjvlgA from the planarian species Dugesia japonica. This gene

    Previously, generation of superoxide anion (O2-) catalyzed by Cu-binding peptides derived from human prion protein (model sequence for helical Cu-binding motif VNITKQHTVTTTT was most active) in the presence of catecholamines and related aromatic monoamines such as phenylethylamine and tyramine, has been reported [Kawano, T., Int J Biol Sci

    The p38 MAPK kinase pathway is activated in response to a wide range of cellular stress stimuli and cytokines. Our understanding of the important functions of p38 MAPK in the process of differentiation and cell death has grown considerably in the recent years and is now relatively established. Here we discuss the role of p38 MAPK in the mediation

    In the study of the regulation of incubation, broodiness and laying performance in pigeons (Columba liva), a cDNA library, which was enriched with full-length brooding-related genes, was constructed by SMART LD-PCR techniques using the pituitary glands of incubating White King pigeons. The titers of optimal primary libraries were 1.54106

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content plays a key role in establishing pork quality. In the present study, differential-display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) was used to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes between longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles with extremely different IMF content. A major DE gene associated with

    Germline mutations of BRCA1 predispose women to breast and ovarian cancers. Elucidating molecular mechanism of tissue- and gender-specific phenomena in BRCA1-related tumors is a key to our understanding of BRCA1 function in tumor suppression. This review summarizes studies in recent years on the link between BRCA1 and estrogen/progesterone

    The splice-site sequences of U2-type introns are highly degenerate, so many different sequences can function as U2-type splice sites. Using our new profiles based on hydrophobicity properties we pointed out specific properties for regions surrounding splice sites. We built a set T of flanking regions of genes with 1-3 introns from 21st and 22nd

    Homeobox genes are known to be critically important in tumor development and progression. The BP1 (Beta Protein 1) gene, an isoform of DLX4, belongs to the Distal-less (DLX) subfamily of homeobox genes and encodes a homeodomain-containing transcription factor. Our studies have shown that the BP1 gene was overexpressed in 81% of primary breast



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